觀賞魚成入侵物種

鯽魚是非常普遍的寵物觀賞魚,同時亦被大量棄養野放到各地淡水生境變成入侵物種。鯽魚的繁殖能力非常高,在野外牠們更可生長到一般的幾倍大,對原生動植物都構成威脅及造成嚴重破壞。美國多個州如明尼蘇達州、弗吉尼亞州及華盛頓州等,需投放大量資金去嘗試移除鯽魚及復育生境,當局呼籲市民切勿野放寵物。

Goldfish are very common pet fish, and are frequently released to the wild by pet owners and became invasive species. Goldfish have great reproduction rate and can grow to several times bigger than normal size in the wild; they became a threat to native species and causing serious damage. Many States in the USA such as Minnesota, Virginia and Washington states are investing great amount of money to remove these invasive species and restore the habitat. wildlife authorities warn pet owners never release their unwanted pet into the wild. 

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/46715/20210713/giant-goldfish-continues-to-invade-waterways-all-over-the-us.htm

放飛氣球危害生態

於各種慶典不時會有放飛氣球的活動,這些氣球放飛後成為塑膠垃圾,造成大量污染,嚴重危害生態環境,特別是海洋生物及雀鳥,牠們會誤食或被纏繞至死。美國多個州分已立法管制或禁止放飛氣球。

Balloons are released from time to time at different celebrations and events. These balloons will turn into plastic waste and most of them end up on the ocean, polluting the environment. Wildlife especially marine animals and birds would mistake these marine debris as food or entangle to death. Some States in the US already set up legislation to control or ban releasing balloons. 

http://www.mountvernongazette.com/news/2021/jul/15/balloon-releases-could-bring-fines/

https://abc3340.com/news/abc-3340-news-iteam/experts-warn-mass-balloon-releases-deadly-for-marine-and-wildlife

https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/a-disgusting-horrible-mess-seabirds-plight-prompts-balloon-release-ban-20210714-p589k7.html

海星大爆發導致珊瑚死亡

位於南海的太平島,因棘冠海星數量大爆發,超過九成珊瑚礁在兩年間死亡。研究估計,棘冠海星最主要的天敵大法螺被大量捕捉作觀賞用途至幾乎滅絕,導致棘冠海星數量無法得到控制。另外亦可能因人為海洋污染造成微細藻類大增,助長了棘冠海星大量繁殖。

Over 90% of the coral reefs around Taiping Island in the South China Sea are dead in the past two years because of the population explosion of crown-of-thorns starfish. These starfish’s main predator, the giant triton, were heavily captured for ornamental use; without the giant triton, the number of starfish become uncontrollable. human pollution that leads to increasing micro algae  may also benefit the reproduction of the starfish. 

https://www.natgeomedia.com/environment/article/content-13800.html?fbclid=IwAR1W7Y32124gK1BkH90JxkLwp7sUpOCIyTqlzK5Kuo_bKn4OW-y7FO8VWTo

角鵰幼鳥飢餓至死

角鵰是地球上最大的猛禽之一,棲息於亞馬遜熱帶雨林的樹冠層。 研究發現牠們受到森林砍伐的威脅,及不會在損失超過 70% 森林的地區築巢。 一對角鵰每個繁殖期只養育一隻幼鳥,而這些幼鳥正面臨飢餓,因為牠們的食物來源如樹懶及蜘蛛猴也正在消失。

Harpy eagle is one of the largest raptors on earth that lives in the canopy layer of the Amazon rainforest. Study found they are threatened by deforestation and are not nesting in areas with over 70% forest loss. A breeding pair mainly raise one eaglet at a time, and these eaglets are facing starvation because their food sources like sloths and spider monkeys are disappearing as well. 

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-57665575

禁止獵殺歐斑鳩一年

西班牙將立法禁止獵殺易危物種歐斑鳩,為期一年。但歐斑鳩在西歐地區如法國、意大利及葡萄牙等遷徙時仍有機會被獵殺。研究指若能全面停止在西歐獵殺歐斑鳩,牠們的數量每年會有5%增長。

Spain will ban the hunting of the vulnerable European turtle dove for a year. However, turtle doves can still be hunted when flying over other Western European counties like France, Italy and Portugal. Study found if hunting stopped in Western Europe, the number of turtle doves could increase by 5% each year.

https://www.birdguides.com/news/turtle-dove-hunting-to-be-banned-in-spain-for-one-year/

為瀕危斑蝶種乳草

帝王斑蝶依靠乳草繁殖,但乳草的消失及氣候暖化令牠們的數量大減。加拿大一位12歲女生三年前開始為帝王斑蝶種植乳草,更在自己的社區分發幼苗,希望鼓勵更多人參與。

Caterpillars of Monarch butterfly mainly feed on milkweed, but the disappearance of milkweed and climate change have been reducing monarch butterfly population. A 12-year-old girl in Canada started to plant milkweed 3 years ago to help these endangered butterflies; she also distributes milkweed seedlings in her neighbourhood to encourage more people to join her.

https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/vanessa-burchill-downtown-dartmouth-monarch-butterfly-project-milkweed-1.6067585

箱龜保育犬

約 20 年前,美國北卡羅來納州一名男子的帕金獵犬喜歡把箱龜帶回作禮物給他,他發現這特殊技能有助於科學研究,因箱龜常躲藏於草叢中難以被人類發現。他其後開始訓練更多帕金獵犬來嗅出箱龜,並到美國不同的地方參與龜類保育工作。

around 20 years ago, a man in North Carolina found his Boykin spaniels liked to bring him box turtles as gifts during their hike, and he discovered their special skills could help scientific researches because box turtles are hard to encounter as they are usually hidden in tall grass. He then started to train more spaniels to sniff out box turtles, and travel around the States to track box turtles with different conservationists.

https://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/he-realized-his-dogs-have-an-unusual-skill-now-he-uses-them-to-help-save-turtles/

呼籲停止餵飼野鳥

英國倫敦皇家公園呼籲公眾停止餵飼麵包給野生雀鳥如天鵝及鴨子等。因為人類令鳥類聚集導致過度擁擠及欺凌,並對牠們造成壓力及增加疾病傳播。麵包非野生鳥類的天然食物,並不能為牠們提供必須的維生素。剩下的麵包更會吸引老鼠及污染水源。

The Royal Parks in London are urging people to stop feeding bread to wild birds like swans and ducks. Human feeding is causing overcrowding and bullying among birds and leads to stress and disease spreading. Bread is not natural food for wild birds and doesn’t provide important vitamins for them; leftover bread also attracts rats and contaminates the water as well. 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jun/10/dont-feed-the-ducks-royal-parks-warn-bullying-birds-lockdown-london-aoe

與社區合作復修破碎森林

巴西聖保羅州西部的 Great Pontal Reserve, 原本擁有非常獨特及瀕危的季節性半落葉森林,但1940於年代後期,大量人類遷居開發導致八成森林消失。科學家在研究極危的黑獅面狨時發現牠們受森林破碎所威脅,於是希望想辦法改善情況。他們與當地社區合作,培養樹苗及植樹。經過35年的努力,他們已種植了超過 270 萬棵樹木,覆蓋了 6000 公頃的森林。這復修不但改善了黑獅面狨的棲息環境,住在那𥚃的美洲獅及貘等亦同樣受惠。

The Great Pontal Reserve is located at the west of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It contains seasonal, semi-deciduous forest which is an unique and endangered type of forest. Human civilization destroyed 80% of the forest in late 1940s. When studying the endangered black lion tamarins, scientists found out that fragmentation of forests was the main threat to these rare monkeys and decided to improve the forest connectivity. They involved the local communities to plant trees starting from seeding nursery. Over the past 35 years, they planted more than 2.7million trees that covers 6000 hectares of forest. The improvements not only helped the endangered tamarins, but also other wildlife inhabit there like pumas and tapirs. 

三千年後再有袋獾誕生

約3000年前,由於引入了澳洲野犬,澳洲主島的袋獾就從此消失。上年保育團體野放了26隻袋獾到主島的保育區,最近有7隻幼獾誕生,是3000年來首次誕生在澳洲主島的袋獾!

Around 3000 years ago, Tasmanian devils disappeared completely on mainland Australia because of introduced dingoes. 26 Tasmanian devils were reintroduced to a wild sanctuary on mainland, and recently there seven joeys were born and they were the first births there in 3000years!

https://www.newcastleherald.com.au/story/7267365/first-tasmanian-devils-born-on-mainland-in-the-wild-in-3000-years/?src=rss