外來植物構成威脅

極危物種聖誕島飛狐會食用外來植物,但研究發現這些植物營養價值較低,無法為牠們提供均衡營養。研究員擔心這會進一步對飛狐的存活造成威脅,而且牠們是島上重要的傳播花粉及種子的媒介,數量減少會直接影響到當地的生態系統。

A recent research found that exotic plants that critically endangered Christmas Island flying foxes feed on have less nutritional value and do not provide them a balanced meal. researchers worry this would further threaten the survival of flying foxes and the local ecosystem, as they are important pollinators and seed dispersers on the island. 

非法捕獵豪豬

在印尼,豪豬被非法捕獵作食用及藥材。牠們的肉被食用,刺被用作裝飾,胃石被用作藥材治療中毒、傷寒、癌症等。印尼有五種豪豬,牠們都因失去棲息地及非法捕獵所威脅,數量正在下降。

porcupines are being illegally hunted for meat and medicine in Indonesia. their meat are usually consumed; their spines are for decorative purposes and their bezoars are traditionally used to cure poisoning, typhoid and cancer in south east Asia. there are five species of porcupines in Indonesia. Their population is declining due to habitat loss and illegal poaching. 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210510104432.htm

建繞道讓魚類洄游繁殖

英國塞文河因河運興建多個堰壩,很多會從大海洄游產卵的魚類如鮭魚及鰻魚,已有超過170年未能回來牠們的繁殖地。近年有計劃在四個主要堰壩增加繞道,希望再次開放約240公里的河道,最近其中兩條已完成,團隊期望這個五月能再次看到芬塔西鯡魚的回歸。

Weirs were built on the Severn Rivers in UK for transportations; many fishes like salmons and eels were unable to migrate back for spawning from the ocean for over 170 years. Recent years, there are plans to create routes around four major weirs, and two of them are completed recently; the team is hoping to see the return of the twaite shad, traditionally known as the May fish, this May.

https://www.gloucestershirelive.co.uk/news/gloucester-news/uks-rarest-fish-grace-waters-5397148

近親繁殖或構成威脅

受非法捕獵、棲息地減少及破碎化等威脅,極危的蘇門答臘犀牛只餘下少於100隻。研究發現牠們保留了比預期中多的遺傳多樣性,即牠們有較好的基因對抗氣候變化及疾病。可惜族群細小,當中出現輕微的近親繁殖,令研究團隊非常擔憂,因過去就有一個群族因突發爆發近親繁殖而導致整個滅絕。

There only fewer than 100 of critically endangered Sumatran rhinos, and they are mainly  threatened by poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation. Research found they retain higher genetic diversity as expected, means they are more likely to survive threats like climate change or disease. However, with small population size they show low levels of inbreeding. This worries the researchers because another subpopulation showed a sudden outbreak of inbreeding before their extinction. 

兩種非洲象都面臨絕種

過去森林象及草原象都被例為非洲象並屬易危物種,兩種非洲象所棲息的地區及生境有別,基本上沒有重疊的棲息範圍。而最新的研究顯示,森林象的數量在過往31年下降了86%,現屬極危物種;草原象的數量在過往50年下降了60%,則屬瀕危物種。

In the past, African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) and African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) were both listed as the same species and was a Vulnerable species. recently research shows the habitats and distributions are different for both species, and they rarely overlap. the population of African forest elephant has declined 86% in the past 31 years and is now listed as Critically Endangered; the number of African savanna elephant has dropped 60% in the last 50 years, and it is now listed as Endangered. 

https://www.iucn.org/news/species/202103/african-elephant-species-now-endangered-and-critically-endangered-iucn-red-list

加設路拱減少路殺

坦桑尼亞的桑給巴爾市因發展旅遊業,導致瀕危的桑吉巴紅疣猴棲息地減少及變得破碎,平均每兩至三星期便有一隻紅疣猴被車撞死。為減少意外發生,當地在主要出沒馬路加設減速路拱,成功把意外率下降到六星期一宗。當地計劃再加設更多路拱來把意外率減至更低。

habitat for the endangered Zanzibar red colobus is fragmented and continues to shrink because of tourism growth in Zanzibar, Tanzania. in average, a red colobus is killed every 2-3 weeks because of vehicle collisions. To reduce the number of collisions, speed bumps were installed in roads the red colobus frequently cross. with the speed bumps, it helps to reduce the number to 1 collision in 6 weeks. Officials are planning to install more speed bumps in the future to further reduce the risk of collision. 

家畜藥物危害禿鷲

最近在西班牙發現有近危禿鷲因雙氯芬酸鈉死亡。雙氯芬酸鈉是畜牧業廣泛使用的止痛藥。禿鷲會因食用家畜屍體而直接吸收雙氯芬酸鈉,引致腎衰竭死亡。大部分亞洲地區已禁止使用此藥物,但西班牙及義大利因稱會妥善處理所以仍能合法使用。

an endangered cinereous vulture was found killed by diclofenac in Spain recently. Diclofenac is a common pain relieve drug for livestocks. If a vulture ate carcasses of cattle treated with this drug, it will damage its kidney and cause death. Diclofenac has been banned in most Asian regions, but is still legal in Spain and Italy as their farmers and regulators claim to  dispose cattle carcasses properly.

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/45664/20210411/diclofenac-a-drug-banned-in-asia-poisons-rare-european-vultures.htm

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/apr/11/rare-european-vultures-being-poisoned-by-livestock-drug

鬃狼因蟎蟲患皮膚病

在巴西聖保羅州及米納斯吉拉斯州的邊界發現有些失去皮毛的鬃狼,經診斷後發現患上因家犬蟎蟲引發的皮膚病。當地主要因發展畜牧養殖及大豆種植等砍伐大量森林,鬃狼的棲息地減少,更縮短了與人類之間的距離,增加病毒感染的機會。

in Brazil, some maned wolves that live along the border between the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais are losing their fur. they were diagnosed with skin disease caused by mites from domestic dogs. Human activities like soy farming and cattle ranching are causing deforestation in the areas; maned wolves are threatened by habitat lost; the chance of contact with human has increased and could result in virus infestation. 

失傳的歌聲

當年輕的雄性攝政食蜜鳥離巢後,會透過聆聽年長雄性的歌聲學習鳴唱。因人類發展導致牠們九成的棲息地被破壞,野外只餘下約300隻,被列作極危物種。在難以遇到雄性長輩的情況下,很多幼鳥也只能學習其他雀鳥的叫聲。結果因唱錯歌而無法吸引雌性及繁殖,加速了牠們絕種的危機。

Young male regent honeyeaters will learn their songs from elder males after they leave the nest. 90% of their habitat is lost because of human developments; there are only around 300 of them in the wild now, and are listed as critically endangered. With such small population, young males are unable to meet other elder males, and ended up learning other birds’ songs. Singing the wrong song means females might not mate with them. Without breading, they are moving closer to extinction. 

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-56417544

https://dq.yam.com/post.php?id=13667

大量海牛餓死

自2021年初以來,佛羅里達州已有430多隻西印度海牛死亡,主要是因為食物短缺而餓死。 污染導致有害藻類暴發性大量生長並阻擋陽光,令海牛的主要食物-海草-無法生長,最後因糧食短缺餓死。

Over 430 West Indian manatees in Florida died since the beginning of 2021 mainly because they were starving. Pollution is causing continuous algal blooms and blocking out sunlight which is vital for seagrass growth, leaving manatees without food and starve to death. 

https://www.tampabay.com/news/environment/2021/03/11/florida-manatees-are-dying-at-an-alarming-rate-many-are-starving/