昔日賽馬成寵物糧

新州賽馬協會控告一個億萬富翁把退休賽馬送到食物加工場宰殺作寵物糧食。宰殺賽馬在澳洲雖然並非違法,但新州賽馬協會有規定要為退休賽馬安排安老的居所,不得送往宰殺,否則事主會被處分或取消參賽資格。

Racing NSW accused a billionaire for sending retired race horses to pet food factories for slaughter in New South Wales. it is not illegal to slaughter racehorses in Australia, but the rules of Racing NSW has required retired racehorses to be rehomed and not to send to slaughter, otherwise there will be fines, suspensions and disqualifications. 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/29/nsw-stud-owned-by-gerry-harvey-among-those-accused-in-parliament-of-sending-racehorses-to-slaughter

一半珊瑚於25年間消失

全球暖化令海水溫度上升,導致珊瑚大規模死亡,澳洲大堡礁過去25年失去一半以上的珊瑚。大量海洋生物依賴珊瑚礁作非常重要的棲息、覓食及繁殖的地方。大堡礁是全球最大的珊瑚礁,當區的生物數量及多樣性都大量下降,必需盡快減少溫室氣體排放量來減輕對珊瑚的影響。

Ocean water temperature is too high due to climate change and is killing coral. Over 50% of the corals in the Great Barrier Reef have died in the past 25 years. many marine creatures rely on the coral reefs; it is an important place for living, foraging and reproduction. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world, but the biodiversity and number of marine creatures have dropped significantly due to the loss of coral. It is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to reduce the impact on corals. 

https://www.lifegate.com/great-barrier-reef-half-corals-lost

巴西草原迫切需要保護

塞拉多是位於巴西的一片巨大的熱帶大草原,是世上生物多樣性最豐富的草原,具非常重要的生態價值,但有一半的原生植被已轉作養殖畜牧、大豆及其他農業種植園。研究指,當區大型受保護的哺乳動物山獅、大食蟻獸及鬃狼等,只棲息於沒有任何人類發展及活動的區域,若要保護剩餘的珍貴物種及生物多樣性,當地管理者迫切需要全面保護還未被破壞的地區。

Cerrado is a large tropical savanna region in Brazil; it is the world’s most diverse savanna. However, half of the Cerrado has converted to cattle ranches, soy plantation and other croplandsStudy found large mammals like the pumas, giant anteaters and manned wolves can only be found in area without any human development and activities. To preserve biodiversity and protect these threatened species, the land managers need to fully protect the park area. 

承諾打擊貿易卻容許買賣

中國承諾打擊非法穿山甲貿易,卻仍然容許至少221間公司合法銷售牌照,在網上及實體店內直接售賣含穿山甲成份的產品,亦容許製藥公司繼續使用穿山甲鱗片生產藥物。極度瀕危的穿山甲是被非法販賣最嚴重的哺乳類動物。

China has promised to crack down on illegal pangolin trading,but still allowing at least 221 companies to own legal license to sell items that contained pangolin scales; they also allow pharmaceutical companies to use pangolin scales to manufacture related products. Pangolin is critically endangered  and is the most illegally trafficked mammals.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/13/china-still-allowing-use-of-pangolin-scales-in-traditional-medicine

製疫苗恐禍及全球鯊魚

英國一間製藥廠,計劃生產10億劑從角鯊烯研發出來的武漢肺炎疫苗。角鯊烯是從鯊魚肝臟提取的油脂,若要替全球染疫患者接種這疫苗,估計至少要殺掉50萬條鯊魚。現時每年已有300萬條鯊魚因提取作藥物、化妝品、保健食品等而被宰殺,若需求再突然大量升幅,將會加重對鯊魚的威脅。從野生動物中提取資源並不是可持續的方法,應盡快找到角鯊烯的替代品。

A pharmaceutical company in UK intends to produce 1 billion doses of coronavirus vaccine with squalene, an oil harvested from shark livers. To produce enough vaccine for infected patients worldwide, at least five hundred thousand sharks will be killed. in average, around 3 million sharks are killed for squalene yearly to manufacture medicines, cosmetics, health products, etc.; a sudden increase in the demand of squalene would create more threats to the shark population. relying on a wild animal resources for a global need is not sustainable and there should be other alternatives. 

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/44559/20201012/conservationist-groups-shark-based-coronavirus-vaccine-will-kill-half-million.htm

https://udn.com/news/story/120944/4899376

空氣污染影響昆蟲傳播

傳播花粉在大自然生態系統中是非常重要的,而而且大多數傳粉工作都依靠昆蟲。有研究發現,臭氧濃度高會令煙草天蛾無法靠嗅覺找到合適的花朵採蜜,但煙草天蛾屬較特別的昆蟲,因牠同時能靠視覺及學習而最終成功採蜜。研究員擔心大多昆蟲只靠嗅覺,會因空氣污染而影響生態平衡。

Pollination is a very important part in the ecosystem, and most of that rely on insects. Study found high ozone air pollution will affect communication between flowers and pollinators. For example, tobacco hawkmoth lost attraction to the scent of their preferred flowers, but this moth has an advantage as they can also use their vision and ability to learn to get to their flowers.Researchers worry about other insects that rely only on scents would be greatly affected and the ecosystem would be damaged.

https://www.technologynetworks.com/applied-sciences/news/flower-scent-unattractive-to-pollinators-in-polluted-air-339435

三百隻非洲象中毒死亡

今年五月及六月期間,有三百多隻非洲象離奇死亡,因頭上還有象牙,所以相信並非偷獵者所致。研究發現牠們的死因很大機會與含毒素的藍菌有關,氣候變化令藍菌大量生長。因為七成死亡的象都橫屍在水源附近,相信牠們是在水源洗澡及飲用這些水後死亡。

Over 300 African elephants mysteriously died in May and June of this year; they were not killed by poachers as heir tucks were not removed. researchers found out their death could be due to cyanobacteria toxins from waterholes. During the rainy season, there were harmful algal blooms triggered by climate change in the waterholes where the elephants bath and drink, and 70% of these elephants were found dead near these waterholes that produce cyanobacteria

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/44455/20200921/botswana-mystery-mass-elephant-die-solved.htm

盜墓土撥鼠

加拿大蒙特婁一個墓園偶然會在地上發現人骨及一些棺木的木塊或金屬裝飾。原來這些都是被土撥鼠挖掘出來的,而且主要為了磨自己的牙!墓園的工作人員表示,可能因狐狸數量減少,近年土撥鼠的數量增加,墓碑之間常看到牠們挖掘的痕跡。若看到有骨頭在地面,他們也只能放回附近的洞再埋好。

In a cemetery in Montreal, Canada, human bones and pieces of casket could be found on scattered on grass sometimes. it turns out groundhogs are the one that dig them out to pare down their teeth! The cemetery staff said because the number of foxes decreases, there are more groundhogs around in recent years. If the staff come across any bones, they will put them back to the nearby hole to burry again.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/sep/14/groundhogs-montreal-cemetery-canada-bones

人類垃圾導致赤狐入侵

挪威發展一些高海拔地區,建設了道路推廣旅遊業。發展除了增加野生動物被路殺的機會,人類遺留的垃圾也引來了赤狐及烏鴉來覓食。赤狐入侵嚴重威脅到北極狐的活動,並迫使牠們退移至較高海拔,加上赤狐體型比北極狐大,亦曾出現北極狐被赤狐殺害的情況。赤狐的遷移同時也對當區的生態系統及其他動物如岩雷鳥帶來威脅。

Norway developed road networks and tourism in the higher elevations. The increase of traffic caused more wildlife road kills, and human’s litters attracted red foxes and crows to come and search for food, causing threats to the arctic foxes there and forcing them to move higher up the mountains. Red foxes are also larger in size and there are incidences of them killing arctic foxes. The invasion of red foxes not only affecting the arctic foxes, but also other wildlife like ptarmigan and the local ecosystem.

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/44346/20200901/litters-causes-displacement-arctic-fox-invasion-red.htm

懷疑出口雀鳥被用作牟利

澳洲政府於過去2015至2018年期間,批准出售232隻當地受保護瀕危雀鳥給德國一間動物園作展出用途,但這間已註冊的動物園聲稱有設施展出些雀鳥,卻從未開放給公眾而引起質疑。現在更懷疑出售這些雀鳥及牠們的後代,澳洲政府決定展開調查。

The Australian government permitted the export of 232 protected and endangered native birds during 2015-2018, to a zoo in Berlin for exhibitions. However, these exhibitions were never freely opened to the public and caused suspicion. Now there are suspicions of these birds and and their offsprings are being sold, the environment ministers of Australia decided to carry out an investigation.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/sep/04/australias-environment-minister-orders-investigation-into-export-of-hundreds-of-endangered-parrots