呼籲停止餵飼野鳥

英國倫敦皇家公園呼籲公眾停止餵飼麵包給野生雀鳥如天鵝及鴨子等。因為人類令鳥類聚集導致過度擁擠及欺凌,並對牠們造成壓力及增加疾病傳播。麵包非野生鳥類的天然食物,並不能為牠們提供必須的維生素。剩下的麵包更會吸引老鼠及污染水源。

The Royal Parks in London are urging people to stop feeding bread to wild birds like swans and ducks. Human feeding is causing overcrowding and bullying among birds and leads to stress and disease spreading. Bread is not natural food for wild birds and doesn’t provide important vitamins for them; leftover bread also attracts rats and contaminates the water as well. 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jun/10/dont-feed-the-ducks-royal-parks-warn-bullying-birds-lockdown-london-aoe

與社區合作復修破碎森林

巴西聖保羅州西部的 Great Pontal Reserve, 原本擁有非常獨特及瀕危的季節性半落葉森林,但1940於年代後期,大量人類遷居開發導致八成森林消失。科學家在研究極危的黑獅面狨時發現牠們受森林破碎所威脅,於是希望想辦法改善情況。他們與當地社區合作,培養樹苗及植樹。經過35年的努力,他們已種植了超過 270 萬棵樹木,覆蓋了 6000 公頃的森林。這復修不但改善了黑獅面狨的棲息環境,住在那𥚃的美洲獅及貘等亦同樣受惠。

The Great Pontal Reserve is located at the west of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It contains seasonal, semi-deciduous forest which is an unique and endangered type of forest. Human civilization destroyed 80% of the forest in late 1940s. When studying the endangered black lion tamarins, scientists found out that fragmentation of forests was the main threat to these rare monkeys and decided to improve the forest connectivity. They involved the local communities to plant trees starting from seeding nursery. Over the past 35 years, they planted more than 2.7million trees that covers 6000 hectares of forest. The improvements not only helped the endangered tamarins, but also other wildlife inhabit there like pumas and tapirs. 

三千年後再有袋獾誕生

約3000年前,由於引入了澳洲野犬,澳洲主島的袋獾就從此消失。上年保育團體野放了26隻袋獾到主島的保育區,最近有7隻幼獾誕生,是3000年來首次誕生在澳洲主島的袋獾!

Around 3000 years ago, Tasmanian devils disappeared completely on mainland Australia because of introduced dingoes. 26 Tasmanian devils were reintroduced to a wild sanctuary on mainland, and recently there seven joeys were born and they were the first births there in 3000years!

https://www.newcastleherald.com.au/story/7267365/first-tasmanian-devils-born-on-mainland-in-the-wild-in-3000-years/?src=rss

禁止宰殺雄性小雞

傳統養雞場的雄性小雞孵化後會被宰殺,因牠們無法生蛋及不適合肉類生產。德國因不人道為由決定明年起禁止這種宰殺,農夫需要採用高科技測試蛋的性別,確保雄性小雞不會孵化。

traditionally in chicken farms, male chicks are slaughtered shortly after hatching because they cannot lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production. Germany will ban the mass slaughter of male chicks starting next year because it is unethical. Famers will be required to use technology to check the sex of eggs and get rid of male eggs before  hatching. 


https://www.dw.com/en/germany-bans-male-chick-culling-from-2022/a-57603148

外來植物構成威脅

極危物種聖誕島飛狐會食用外來植物,但研究發現這些植物營養價值較低,無法為牠們提供均衡營養。研究員擔心這會進一步對飛狐的存活造成威脅,而且牠們是島上重要的傳播花粉及種子的媒介,數量減少會直接影響到當地的生態系統。

A recent research found that exotic plants that critically endangered Christmas Island flying foxes feed on have less nutritional value and do not provide them a balanced meal. researchers worry this would further threaten the survival of flying foxes and the local ecosystem, as they are important pollinators and seed dispersers on the island. 

非法捕獵豪豬

在印尼,豪豬被非法捕獵作食用及藥材。牠們的肉被食用,刺被用作裝飾,胃石被用作藥材治療中毒、傷寒、癌症等。印尼有五種豪豬,牠們都因失去棲息地及非法捕獵所威脅,數量正在下降。

porcupines are being illegally hunted for meat and medicine in Indonesia. their meat are usually consumed; their spines are for decorative purposes and their bezoars are traditionally used to cure poisoning, typhoid and cancer in south east Asia. there are five species of porcupines in Indonesia. Their population is declining due to habitat loss and illegal poaching. 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210510104432.htm

建繞道讓魚類洄游繁殖

英國塞文河因河運興建多個堰壩,很多會從大海洄游產卵的魚類如鮭魚及鰻魚,已有超過170年未能回來牠們的繁殖地。近年有計劃在四個主要堰壩增加繞道,希望再次開放約240公里的河道,最近其中兩條已完成,團隊期望這個五月能再次看到芬塔西鯡魚的回歸。

Weirs were built on the Severn Rivers in UK for transportations; many fishes like salmons and eels were unable to migrate back for spawning from the ocean for over 170 years. Recent years, there are plans to create routes around four major weirs, and two of them are completed recently; the team is hoping to see the return of the twaite shad, traditionally known as the May fish, this May.

https://www.gloucestershirelive.co.uk/news/gloucester-news/uks-rarest-fish-grace-waters-5397148

近親繁殖或構成威脅

受非法捕獵、棲息地減少及破碎化等威脅,極危的蘇門答臘犀牛只餘下少於100隻。研究發現牠們保留了比預期中多的遺傳多樣性,即牠們有較好的基因對抗氣候變化及疾病。可惜族群細小,當中出現輕微的近親繁殖,令研究團隊非常擔憂,因過去就有一個群族因突發爆發近親繁殖而導致整個滅絕。

There only fewer than 100 of critically endangered Sumatran rhinos, and they are mainly  threatened by poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation. Research found they retain higher genetic diversity as expected, means they are more likely to survive threats like climate change or disease. However, with small population size they show low levels of inbreeding. This worries the researchers because another subpopulation showed a sudden outbreak of inbreeding before their extinction. 

兩種非洲象都面臨絕種

過去森林象及草原象都被例為非洲象並屬易危物種,兩種非洲象所棲息的地區及生境有別,基本上沒有重疊的棲息範圍。而最新的研究顯示,森林象的數量在過往31年下降了86%,現屬極危物種;草原象的數量在過往50年下降了60%,則屬瀕危物種。

In the past, African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) and African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) were both listed as the same species and was a Vulnerable species. recently research shows the habitats and distributions are different for both species, and they rarely overlap. the population of African forest elephant has declined 86% in the past 31 years and is now listed as Critically Endangered; the number of African savanna elephant has dropped 60% in the last 50 years, and it is now listed as Endangered. 

https://www.iucn.org/news/species/202103/african-elephant-species-now-endangered-and-critically-endangered-iucn-red-list

加設路拱減少路殺

坦桑尼亞的桑給巴爾市因發展旅遊業,導致瀕危的桑吉巴紅疣猴棲息地減少及變得破碎,平均每兩至三星期便有一隻紅疣猴被車撞死。為減少意外發生,當地在主要出沒馬路加設減速路拱,成功把意外率下降到六星期一宗。當地計劃再加設更多路拱來把意外率減至更低。

habitat for the endangered Zanzibar red colobus is fragmented and continues to shrink because of tourism growth in Zanzibar, Tanzania. in average, a red colobus is killed every 2-3 weeks because of vehicle collisions. To reduce the number of collisions, speed bumps were installed in roads the red colobus frequently cross. with the speed bumps, it helps to reduce the number to 1 collision in 6 weeks. Officials are planning to install more speed bumps in the future to further reduce the risk of collision.